The largest tribes of Baiga are found in Madhya Pradesh. A study by the Anthropological Survey of India and the Texas-based Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research identified seven genomes from 26 isolated "relic tribes" (sic) from the Indian mainland, Baiga being one of them, which share "two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines." These were specific mtDNA mutations that are shared exclusively by Australian aborigines and these Indian tribes, and no other known human groupings.

Baigas believed in shifting cultivation and practiced it in the forest area. They lived a semi-nomadic life. The Baiga produce few implements, thus there is little to describe in the area of the visual arts. Their basketry may be so considered, as may their decorative door carving (though this is rare), tattooing (chiefly of the female body), and masking. Frequent tattoo designs include triangles, baskets, peacocks, turmeric root, flies, men, magic chains, fish bones, and other items of importance in Baiga life. Men sometimes have the moon tattooed on the back of a hand and a scorpion tattooed on a forearm.

Tattooing is an integral part of their lifestyle. Tattoos make Baigas distinctive to the other tribes, Baiga women sport tattoos on almost all body parts. The Baiga tribes generally make masks for the Chherta / Khichrahi festival.